Construction glossary

  • ADR - Average Daily Rate
    An index used in the hotel industry to measure a quality of hotel services
    A set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals used in the construction industry due to its desirable physical properties. The use of asbestos is prohibited in most countries due to the fact that it is harmful to humans. It causes pneumoconiosis asbestosis and mesothelioma.
  • BCC - Bulgarian Construction Chamber
    An association that officially represents professionals in Bulgaria. The BCC is an independent institution in which membership is voluntary. In total, BCC membership includes 1,689 legal persons, 16 educational institutions, and 7 NGOs all around Bulgaria.
    BGK – Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego
    A state financial institution in Poland that specialises in serving the public finance sector. It supports state socio-economics programs and local development programs, especially those related to the construction of housing and roads.
    A contractor, supplier or vendor who takes part in a tender.
    Biomass co-firing
    The combustion of biomass along with coal in a thermal power plant to reduce the amount of CO2 released.
    BNR - National Bank of Romania
    National Bank of Romania is the central bank of Romania. It is located in Bucharest, the capital of Romania, and was founded in April 1880.
    A rating system in real estate industry used by investors, developers and tenants. It takes into account factors such as: environmental quality, energy efficiency, materials, construction, water and wastewater management, the availability of transport, and many others.
    BRF – Bratislava Research Forum
    A syndicate of four companies (Jones Lang LaSalle, CBRE, Cushman & Wakefield and Colliers International) that monitors, analyses and publishes reliable real estate data on the office market in Bratislava. The BRF was established in 2008.
    BTC – Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline
    A pipeline that connects Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, with Ceyhan, a Turkish port in the southeast of Turkey, via Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. The pipeline is 1,768 km long, is a crude oil pipeline, and was completed in 2006. This project should help Western countries reduce their dependence on oil imports from Russia and the Middle East.
    BTS – Build to suit
    It is a warehouse facility designed and build for a particular customer.
  • CAGR – Compounded annual growth rate
    The year-over-year growth rate of an investment over a specified period of time.
    Capex − Capital expenditures
    Expenditures that create future benefits. Capital expenditures for product development or the implementation of new systems. This type of outlay is made by companies to maintain or increase the scope of their operations. In the construction market, these expenditures are related to the construction of a new building and structures as opposed to the renovation of existing facilities.
    CCGT – Closed-cycle gas turbine
    A technology that generates energy from an assembly of heat engines. It is a very efficient form of creating energy because it uses waste heat to create steam that drives a steam turbine, which subsequently produces power without any increase in fuel.
    CDS – Credit default swaps
    A financial instrument that was created to transfer credit risk. A CDS is a contract in which one party pays the other a sum of money, and the other party in return agrees to pay the debt if the debtor stops paying the loan. Of course, if the risk of this situation increases, the price of the CDS also increases.
    CEE – Central and Eastern Europe
    Region comprising the countries of the former socialist bloc which are Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, Moldova, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Romania and Bulgaria.
    CHP – Combined Heat and Power
    It is a process wherein a power station is simultaneously generating electricity and heat energy. Due to lower fuel consumption, the use of cogeneration creates large economic savings and environmental advantages in comparison with the separate production of heat in a single-purpose heat plant and electricity in power plant.
    CIS – Commonwealth of Independent States
    Political, military and economic organization, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union. Nowadays, there are nine full Member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Russia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. There are two unofficial member states: Ukraine and Turkmenistan. On 18 August 2008, Georgia withdrawn from the CIS.
    Civil engineering construction
    Construction that is designed and built for non-military uses. It consists of sub-disciplines such as materials science and engineering, coastal engineering, construction engineering, earthquake engineering, environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, water resources engineering, structural engineering, surveying transportation engineering, municipal or urban engineering, forensic engineering and control engineering.
    CNADNR – National Company of Motorways and National Roads in Romania
    A strategic Romanian company that develops the country’s nationally important roads, builds new urban expressways and bypasses, and manages the country’s existing national road infrastructure.
    CNB – Czech National Bank
    The Czech National Bank is the central bank of the Czech Republic and the supervisor of the Czech financial markets. It is located in Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic.
    The permission to engage in business activities that are defined in this permission. A concession, which is usually issued by the highest government authorities, determines the conditions under which business can be done and the time for which a concession is granted.
    Construction chemicals market
    All chemical materials and components that can be used to build structures. In PMR reports, the construction chemicals market consists of five major groups of products: adhesives for ceramic tiles and other types of cladding, masonry mortars, thermal insulation systems, floor screed, and traditional thick-coat plasters.
    Construction market
    All existing commercial, industrial and habitable buildings or structures. It consists of civil engineering construction (roads, railways, airports, and heavy industry), residential construction (apartments, block of flats, bungalows, cottages, condominiums, villas, duplexes, and townhouses), and non-residential construction (warehouses, retail and service buildings, offices, hotels, and public-utility buildings). The construction sector in the European Union generates approximately 10% of the EU’s GDP and employs 7% of the EU workforce.
    Construction output
    This category includes revenues generated by construction firms only within their core business (construction and assembly work).
    Construction permit
    A document received through an administrative decision for the purposes of commencing and conducting construction or the execution of works other than building construction.
    CPI – Consumer Price Index
    A rate that measures changes in the prices of goods and services purchased by the average household. The CPI is the most common measure of inflation in the world.
    CRPB – Central Register of Professional Builders
    A list of Bulgarian and non-Bulgarian (foreign) companies allowed to conduct their construction activity in Bulgaria.
    CSA – Capacity supply agreement
    An agreement between the government of Russia and a power generating company. Companies that sign a CSA are obligated to commission new power plants having capacities with defined characteristics (location, installed capacity, fuel mix) within a defined timeframe. In exchange for building the generating facilities, companies receive guaranteed cash flow in the form of capacity payments for a period of up to 10 years for thermal power plants and 15 years for hydro and nuclear capacities. Along with the revenue earned from the sale of electricity generated at the new facilities, they will be able to achieve a specified internal rate of return on their investments.
    CSU – Czech Statistical Office
    The organization that collects, analyses and disseminates statistical information about the Czech Republic’s society and economy.
  • Design & Build
    An approach used in public procurement in which the contract has the main contractor of the construction project be responsible for project’s design and construction.
    DIY Store − Do It Yourself Store
    A large shop for individuals who like to build, repair and tinker with things on their own; also targeted for small and medium construction companies. The major players on this market in Europe are Castorama, Praktiker, OBI, Leroy Merlin and Brico.
  • EBRD – European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
    An institution founded in 1991 to help post-communist countries in the reconstruction and transition of their economies from centrally controlled markets to free-market private sectors. The EBRD is owned by 64 countries and two EU institutions. It leads its projects in 34 countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and North Africa.
    EC - European Commission
    The main institution of the European Union. It is an executive body that is responsible for EU policy. It proposes legislation, implements decisions, supervises all EU agencies, and manages EU funds. It consists of 27 Commissioners, one from each Member State of the EU.
    ECOSTAT – Institute for Economic Analysis and Informatics, Hungary
    An organization that specializes in economic research and predictions, econometrics and information activities.
    EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment
    A document that guarantees to take into consideration, before making investment decisions, factors related to the environment and ecology. A critical aspect of an EIA includes consultation with the public before making any decision(s).
    EIB – European Investment Bank
    A non-profit European Union institution established in 1958; based in Luxembourg. A primary aim of its activities is to contribute to the harmonious development of all EU countries.
    EU – Countries within the European Union
    28 countries which belong to the European Union: Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, United Kingdom, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Austria, Sweden, Finland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Hungary, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, Romania and Bulgaria. On 1 July 2013, Croatia is to become the 28th member of the EU.
    EVOSZ – National Federation of Hungarian Contractors
    An organization that represents the interests of Hungarian building contractors.
    A public road with limited availability; designed exclusively for motor vehicles; generally has only multi-level junctions with other roads.
  • FDI − Foreign Direct Investment
    An investment made by a company or entity based in one country made into a company or entity based in another country. In order to be considered FDI investment, the minimum threshold for a foreign direct investment relationship is defined by the OECD at 10%.
    Federal road
    A network of national roads in Russia having a total length of 51,000 km; the network is dominated by nine federal highways with route numbers from M-1 to M-9 that have a total length of almost 9,700 km, all of which run from Moscow and account for the majority of road traffic in Russia; another 11 important federal roads, almost all of which are part of the Transsib Corridor and which includes the longest route in the country (M-51, M-53, M-55 Baykal), provide 4,500 km of the total.
    FEDR – European Fund for Regional Development
    A fund created by the European Union in 1975. The objective of the fund is to help to reduce the main regional imbalances in the EU by bridging the gap between the levels of development of the regions.
    FIDIC − Fédération Internationale Des Ingénieurs-Conseils
    International organization whose objectives are to define and popularize standards in technology fields, to represent independent consulting engineers in the international arena, to improve their skills, and to promote the exchange of knowledge and business service companies in the field of technology.
    FIEC – European Industry Federation
    An association of European construction enterprises that represents and protects the interests of the European construction industry towards the European Union; promotes eco-buildings and supports fair competition at construction market.
    FTP – Federal Target Programme
    Russia’s long-term development plan that incorporates the financial resources and timing necessary to implement a set of organisational, R&D, production and other measures necessary to ensure an effective solution for key social and economic targets requiring state support.
  • GBA – Gross Building Area
    This is the sum of the area of a building; the figure includes the area of all floor levels, including the basement, mezzanine, and penthouses, as well as the principal outside faces of the exterior walls; excludes the roof.
    GDDKiA – General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways
    Government office in Poland appointed to manage the national roads and to implement the state budget in this regard.
    GDP − Gross Domestic Product
    The aggregate value of final goods and services produced within a country in a given unit of time (usually a year). It includes all private and public consumption, government outlays, investments, and exports less imports that occur within a defined territory.
    General contractor
    The person or company responsible for realisation of an investment.
    GLA – Gross Leasable Area
    It is a term which equals the amount of floor space in a commercial building available to be rented; the figure includes ancillary rooms such as administration offices, social offices, storage, reception and tenant participation in the operation of the common areas of the building, such as hallways, stairwells, and public toilets.
    Gross fixed capital formation
    A macroeconomic concept which means capital raising the value of fixed assets and expenditure incurred on repairs of fixed assets and the increase in the value of intangible assets. It does not include expenditures that represent initial equipment investments nor does it include interest from both loans and investment loans for the duration of the investment.
    GUS – Central Statistical Office
    Public institution that collects, analyses and disseminates statistical information about Polish society and economy.
    GVA – Gross value added in construction
    It is the value of newly generated goods and services in construction sector.
  • HITA – Hungarian Investment and Trade Agency
    An institution established by the Hungarian government to promote the international business activities of Hungarian small and medium-sized companies and to encourage foreign businesses to invest in Hungary.
    Housing co-operative
    An entity which is designed to meet the housing needs and other needs of its members and their families by providing them flats or houses or premises for other purposes.
    Housing stock
    All existing habitable buildings or structures.
  • INS – National Institute of Statistics
    The organization that collects, analyses and disseminates statistical information about Romanian society and economy.
    IPO – Initial Public Offering
    When a company wants to enter the stock exchange, it conducts an IPO to sell its stocks to public investors. In other words, an IPO is the first offer in which a company’s stock is publically for sale.
    ISPA − Instrument for Structural Policies for Pre-Accession
    A financial instrument, along with Phare and SAPARD, which is dedicated to countries that are preparing to join the European Union. The primary objective of ISPA was to harmonize the level of technical infrastructure for transport and the environment. It covers up to 75% of investment cost. This programme was created in 2000, and the benefits were available for 10 countries.
  • JESSICA - Joint European Support for Sustainable Investment in City Areas
    A European Union programme that supports sustainable urban development. A distinctive feature of this program is that it allows for the repeated use of aid funds.
  • KH – Public Procurement Authority in Hungary
    A government office which is responsible for monitoring all the cases connecting with the area of public procurement and ensuring transparency in this area.
    KKST – Kazakhstan Caspian pipeline system
    It is a prospective oil pipeline network slated to connect Baku (the capital of Azerbaijan), Tbilisi, (the capital of Georgia), and Zheihan (in China) with the Kazakh system; the pipeline will mainly transport oil from the giant Kashagan deposit, which accounts for 3% of worldwide crude oil reserves. The field is being developed by a group of partners including Exxon Mobil, AgipKCO (Eni), Shell, Total, ConocoPhillips, INPEX, and the Kazakh state-run oil company KazMunaiGas.
    KSH – The Hungarian Central Statistical Office
    Public institution that collects, analyses and disseminates statistical information about Hungarian society and economy.
    KZT – Kazakhstan tenge
    The tenge is the monetary unit of Kazakhstan. The tenge is divided into 100 tiyn and replaced the Soviet ruble in November 1993.
  • LEED – Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
    A rating system in real estate that evaluates buildings in terms of environmental impact. LEED takes into account the building’s energy efficiency of, water conservation (including the use of rainwater), reduction of CO2 emissions, indoor air quality, organization of green areas around the building, usage of environmentally friendly materials, and waste management.
    LFS – Labour Force Survey
    Research that obtains information about the labour market.
    Low-energy residential buildings
    Buildings having better energy performance than standard buildings. Main factors for improved performance include high levels of insulation, energy efficient windows, low levels of air infiltration, heat recovery ventilation, and active solar technologies.
  • MdM – Mieszkanie dla Młodych
    Flat for Young Home Buyers scheme − government-led initiative aimed to support the Polish housing sector. Gives preferential treatment to families with children; the scheme also acts as an instrument promoting pro-family policies.
    MEASZ – Association of Building Materials Manufacturers
    An organization of Hungarian construction material producers.
    MINT – Kazakh Ministry of Industry and New Technologies
    Central executive body responsible for management in the field of industry and industrial innovations in Kazakhstan.
    MMR – Czech Ministry for Regional Development
    Central body in the Czech Republic responsible for regional policy including housing, tourism and spatial planning. The MMR is responsible for increasing the standards of living of Czech citizens and seeks to ensure the dynamic and balanced development of all Czech regions and to remove or alleviate regional disparities.
    MOG – Kazakh Ministry of Oil and Gas
    Ministry in the government of Kazakhstan responsible for energy policy related to the extraction and export of oil and gas.
    Road designed and built for the safe, fast and smooth movement of vehicles. Motorways are devoid of intersections, traffic lights, level crossings, pavements and pedestrian crossings. Turning, stopping in the emergency line, walking and cycling are not permitted on motorways. Motorways have a higher surface quality and separate lanes for turning traffic. Most are fenced against wild animals and humans.
    MSP − The Ministry of State Treasury
    Ministry in the government of Poland responsible for the disposal of national assets and the policies of companies owned by the state.
    Multipurpose centre
    A building that due to its design and versatility can host a variety of events including concerts, meetings, matches, parties, etc.
  • Nabucco gas pipeline project
    A natural gas pipeline that will connect Erzurum in eastern Turkey and Baumgarten an der March in Lower Austria. The pipeline will be 3,893 km long and will run from Turkey through Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and Austria. The expected completion date is 2017. This project should help Western countries reduce their dependence on gas exports from Russia. The main supply of gas for the Nabucco gas pipeline is expected to come from Azerbaijan’s Shah Deniz gas field in the Caspian Sea. By 30 June 2013 a key decision is expected upon which the fate of this investment depends: the Shah Deniz consortium will announce the gas export route. Without gas from this gas field there will be not enough supply sources to make the project worth pursuing.
    NACE – Nomenclature statistique des Activités économiques dans la Communauté Européenne
    A classification consisting of several letters and numbers corresponding to five levels of classification. The first four digits of the code, which is the first four levels of the classification system, are the same in all European countries. The fifth digit might vary from country to country; additional digits are sometimes added by suppliers of databases.
    NBP – National Bank of Poland
    The National Bank of Poland is the central bank of Poland. It is located in Warsaw, the capital of Poland, and began activity in 1945. Its base goal is to maintain price stability.
    NBS – National Bank of Slovakia
    The National Bank of Slovakia is the central bank of Slovakia. It is located in Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, and was founded in 1993. Its base goal is to maintain price stability.
    NDS – National Motorway Company
    The main executive body in the road infrastructure construction sector in Slovakia.
    NFOSiWG – National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management
    An institution in Poland whose aim is the effective and efficient use of European Union’s funds earmarked for the modernization and expansion of environmental infrastructure.
    NFU – The Hungarian National Development Agency
    A central entity whose goal is to support the sustainable development of all areas in Hungary; create new work places; improve the quality of life of the population, not simply income status, but also the quality of the environment, health, education and social protection; and to reduce development disparities existing between the older European Union Member States and Hungary.
    NKU – Supreme Audit Office
    An independent entity in the Czech Republic that exercises control of the management of state property and the state budget. It was established in 1993.
    Non-residential construction
    A building used for purposes other than dwelling. This category comprises industrial, commercial, educational, health, religion, senior care, entertainment, recreation, and short-term accommodation buildings.
    Novy Panel (A New Block of Flats)
    Czech government programme for housing development. Novy Panel ran for 11 years and offered funding for the repair of approximately 400,000 apartments in the Czech Republic.
    NPP – Nuclear power plant
    A power station that generates electricity by using energy from fission atoms, typically uranium or its isotopes.
    NSI – National Statistical Institute
    Public institution that collects, analyses and disseminates statistical information about Bulgarian society and economy.
  • OECD – Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
    International economic organisation that associates 34 economically developed and highly developed democratic countries. The aim of the OECD is to support Member States in achieving the highest levels of economic growth and standards of living for their citizens.
    ONRC – National Trade Register Office of Romania
    A public institution in Romania that records all acts, deeds and identities of dealers involved in areas for which registration is required by law.
    Operational Program Transport
    A European Union programme co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the Cohesion Fund. Its aim is to support sustainable mobility through the development of transport infrastructure and the improvement of public passenger transport. This will contribute to the reduction of regional disparities, improve economic development, and increase the economic competitiveness of beneficiary countries.
  • PAlilZ – Polish agency for Foreign Investment and Information
    Designed to help foreign investors enter the Polish market. This office is also responsible for promoting Polish products and services, creating a positive image of Poland around the world, and encouraging investment in Poland.
    Panel 2013+ (2013+ Block of flats)
    Czech government programme for housing development. The Panel 2013+ programme accepts applications from individuals and entities, municipalities, cooperatives and associations of flat owners. The money awarded through the programme can be used for the repair of houses, thermal insulation costs or other kinds of repair.
    Passive house
    A standard of building houses in such a way that their technical specifications provide maximum energy efficiency and reduce its ecological footprint.
    PE – Population equivalent
    An index in the area of wastewater treatment which describes the ratio of the total pollution load generated during 24 hours by industrial facilities and services to the industrial pollution load in household sewage produced by one person in the same time period.
    Programme for forced industrialisation and innovative development – A project currently being implemented in Kazakhstan designed to diversify the country’s economy and increase its competitiveness on the global market; slated to run between 2010 and 2014, when its goal is to have completed 779 infrastructure projects requiring KZT 11.4tr ($76bn) that will generate more than 220,000 new jobs during construction and 181,000 jobs during the operation phase.
    PKD – Polish Business Classification
    It is a list of classification codes of business activities in Poland. While registering a company, one must define the area in which the company will operate.
    PKP – Polish Railways
    The dominant railway operator in Poland. PKP consists of several subsidiaries responsible for different parts of Polish railways. The subsidiary responsible for the modernization and construction of railway lines in Poland is called PKP PLK S.A. The main objective of PLK is to seek to integrate the Polish rail transport system with the European Union system, both in terms of technical standards and interoperability of railways.
    PMI – Purchasing managers’ index
    The indicator of financial activity that shows the activity of purchasing managers in various goods and services. It is based on five major segments: new orders, production, inventory levels, supplier deliveries and the employment environment.
    PMU – Anti-Monopoly Office in Slovakia
    An institution that promotes and protects economic competition; prevents the creation and maintenance of monopolistic or dominant positions of entrepreneurs on the Slovak market.
    PNAER – National Action Plan for Renewable Energy
    These are documents that every Member State of the European Union published in 2010. PNAER is a plan (roadmap) of how each Member State intends to achieve the EU’s 2020 target for the share of renewable energy in total energy consumption.
    PNDI – Regional Plan for Infrastructure Development
    A programme for the renovation of 10,000 km of roads, rural infrastructure development, water and sewage infrastructure, and environmental protection. PNDI was intended to last until 2020, but was abandoned in 2012.
    PPI – Producer price index
    A rate that reflects changes in prices set by manufacturers in the various stages of production.
    PPL – Polish Airports State Enterprise
    A company that deals with the construction and operation of Polish airports; also provides services to passengers and airlines.
    PPP − Public-private partnership
    A government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies.
    Public utility building
    All buildings and structures useful for citizens. These places are dedicated for all people that have a right to stay there. Examples of public utility buildings are hospitals, schools, universities, museums and sport halls.
  • REC – Renewable Energy Certificate
    Contractual units which can be bought by countries which do not produce enough energy from renewable sources to fulfil international agreements or energy sold by such countries which produce more energy than necessary. The RECs aim is to stimulate international development of renewable energy.
    Unique registration number assigned to entities of the economy in Poland.
    RES – Renewable energy sources
    Energy sources not associated with a long-term deficit. The resource is renewed in a short time. Examples of RES used to produce electricity and heat are wind, sun, geothermal heat, biomass and water.
    Residential construction
    A building which is suitable for or allocated for residence. Examples of residential buildings are: apartment, block of flats, bungalow, cottage, condominium, villa, duplex and townhouse.
    RIA – Road Infrastructure Agency
    An institution in Bulgaria designed to develop networks of highways, build new expressways and city bypasses, and manage existing road infrastructure.
    Roofing materials
    Building materials used in constructing roofs. Nowadays, the most popular roofing materials are concrete tiles, ceramic tiles, bituminous shingles, metal cover, seamless coverage, tar papers and transparencies.
    RSD – Directorate for Roads and Motorways
    An organization that manages all motorways and first class roads in the Czech Republic.
  • SARIO – Slovak Agency for Development of Investments and Commerce
    An organization whose aim is to improve Slovakia’s quality of life in by helping foreign investors enter the Slovak market. This office is also responsible for promoting Slovak products and services, creating a positive image and a business-friendly environment, and encouraging investment in Slovakia.
    Sewage collector
    Part of the sewage system; discharges sewage to the sewage treatment plant.
    SFDI – State Fund for Transport Infrastructure
    A government instrument that supports the construction and repair of transportation infrastructure in the Czech Republic.
    SFRB – State Fund for Housing Development
    A government instrument that supports the construction and repair of housing in Slovakia. The main types of support are non-repayable grants or loans and favourable long-term loans.
    SFZP – State Fund for Environment
    An economic instrument that supports environmental projects in the Czech Republic; mostly comprised of subsidies from European Union environmental programmes.
    SME – Small and medium-sized enterprises
    Companies that employ less than 250 employees.
    SOP Environment – Sector Operational Programme Environment
    A strategy in Romania to create a more competitive economy, improve the condition of natural environment, and to support balanced regional development.
    South Stream gas pipeline
    A gas pipeline with a total capacity of 63 billion m³ per year that will run from Novorossiysk, Russia, through the Black Sea to Bulgaria, and then it will be divided into two parts. The first part will run via Serbia and Hungary to Baumgarten an der March in Lower Austria and Slovenia; the second through Greece to southern Italy. Its construction started in December 2012; the first phase is slated to be completed in 2015. The pipeline’s construction is estimated to require an investment of €15.5bn. This project is a competitive project to the planned Nabucco gas pipeline.
    SRBB – The Society for Housing Development in Bratislava
    A non-profit organisation set up jointly by the Bratislava City Council and a Slovak bank, Ostrovanka, in 2004. In 2013, SRBB plans to begin building a residential building with 204 flats for tenants.
    SSC – Slovak Road Administration
    An office that administrates the network of roads in Slovakia.
    SSE – Special Economic Zone
    Administratively separate areas in Poland wherein investors can conduct business on favourable terms. The aim of an SSE is to support the acceleration of regional development by attracting new investment and the creation of new jobs.
    An individual or company that signs a contract with a contractor to perform part or all of the obligation of investment.
    SUSR – Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic
    Public institution that collects, analyses and disseminates statistical information about Slovak society and economy.
    SVC – Association of Cement Producers in the Czech Republic
    An entity that unites cement producers in the Czech Republic. Its goals are to support each member in their daily activities and to represent the interests and matters of the entire sector.
    SZDC – Railway Infrastructure Administration
    Manages the Czech national railway infrastructure; also responsible for the modernisation and development of the railway network.
  • TBA – Total building area
    The total area of a building; includes the exterior surface of the walls, but does not take into account the roof.
    TBS – Not-for-profit building association
    An organization in Poland whose aim is to build houses and flats for rent for people with average incomes. TBS built its first block of flats in 1994 in Srem.
    Thermal insulation market
    All materials used to reduce heat transfer from a building to the outside such as styrofoam or mineral wool.
    TLE – The Hungarian Association of Residential Construction
    The institution that officially represents builders in Hungary.
    Transport and communications buildings
    All facilities and structures connected with transportation infrastructure; includes airport terminals, bus stations, train stations, car garages and many more.
  • UOHS – The Czech Office for the Protection of Economic Competition
    An institution that promotes and protects economic competition; prevents the creation and maintenance of monopolistic or dominant positions of entrepreneurs on the Czech market.
    UOKiK – The Office of Competition and Consumer Protection
    An institution that promotes and protects economic competition; prevents the creation and maintenance of monopolistic or dominant positions of entrepreneurs on the Polish market.
    URE – The Energy Regulatory Office
    An entity that controls the Polish energy market. Its main responsibilities include the control of the obligation to purchase electricity generated from renewable sources, the restructure and modernization of energy companies, and conducting activities that contribute to reducing the loss of energy, especially heat.
    UVO – Public Procurement Office
    An independent entity which exercises control of the functioning of the public procurement system in Slovakia. It improves legislation for public procurement.
    UWWD – Untreated urban wastewater
    Waste water from residential settlements and services that is not cleaned by a wastewater treatment plant.
    UZP – Polish Public Procurement Office
    An administrative authority in Poland that develops draft legislation on procurement and reviews the procurement process to the extent provided by law.
  • VM – Ministry of Rural Development
    Central entity that supports sustainable development in rural areas in Hungary. It is also responsible for increasing living standards in Hungarian villages, improving agricultural competitiveness, protecting the natural environment, and managing natural resources.
  • Wall-building materials market
    All the materials and components that can be used to build walls. Nowadays, the most popular wall-building materials are ceramic bricks and blocks, aerated concrete and silicates.
    WSS – Water and sewerage system
    A layout of devices and technological facilities for cleaning industrial and municipal wastewater.
    WWTP – Waste water treatment plant
    A set of devices and technological facilities for cleaning industrial and municipal waste water.
  • ZSR – Railways of the Slovak Republic
    The dominant railway operator in Slovakia.